Google AdSense offers a beta version of responsive advertising units:
The new responsive ad units allow you to support a wide range of devices by working with your responsive design web pages. You can now dynamically specify the size of the ad that will be served, adapting it to fit the way your site renders a page on a particular device.
Alvaris Falcon’s The Responsive Web Design War Strategy enumerates five disadvantages of responsive web design while also discussing some benefits of that design approach which offset or partially offset these disadvantages. Among the five disadvantages is that responsive web design disrupts (a trendy word, like the expression game-changer, isn’t it?) most web advertising models. The solution, he suggests, is to become responsive with web advertising, too. Falcon credits an illustration from Mark Boulton who has this piece from 15 November 2011 on responsive advertising.